সপ্তাহে ২টি ক্লাস হবে এবং প্রতি ক্লাস ২.৫ ঘন্টা ব্যাপি চলবে। কোর্সে যেসকল বিষয় থাকবেঃ
Physics in Animation An introduction to the course, including responsibilities, expectations, and course objectives. The relevance of physics in animation and special effects will be described, including a variety of examples from recent films.
Part I: Basic Animation
Falling, Part 1 Introduction to simple motion, specifically, uniform motion (e.g., rolling at a constant speed) and accelerated linear motion (e.g., falling). Motion is described and analyzed in the relevant language of animation, such as key frames, timing & spacing, slowing in & out, straight-ahead animation, etc.
Falling, Part 2 Advanced animation topics in accelerated motion, such as pose-to-pose animation, in-betweens, strobing, Nyquist effect (wagon wheel illusion), stretch, weightless free fall, linear motion in perspective, etc.
Paths of Action Discussion of motion along a curved path of action, focusing on parabolic trajectory motion (e.g., throwing a ball). The timing and spacing on a parabolic trajectory, including linear perspective, is demonstrated in a variety of examples, both from animation and special effects (e.g., bus jump inSpeed).
Tracking and Motion Graphs In-class demonstrations of how to analyze motion using video tracking software and the relationship with motion capture technology. This analysis will be related to how path of action is manipulated using motion graphs in computer animation software, including a demonstration of Autodesk Maya.
Arcs Motion on a circular path of action is analyzed in detail, including the slowing out from a tipping point, the swinging motion of a pendulum, and a variety of spirals. The concepts of centripetal and centrifugal forces are introduced. Complex rotation, such as tumbling, is described in terms of the tennis racket theorem.
Creating Action Newton’s laws of motion are introduced, starting with the Principle of Inertia (First Law). The concept of inertia is related to “follow through” and “drag” in animation and to the origin of centrifugal force. The transition from accelerated motion to uniform motion, which occurs when air resistance causes a falling object to reach terminal velocity, is analyzed in detail.
Creating More Action Newton’s Second Law of Motion, relating force, mass, and acceleration, is presented. This principle is illustrated in a variety of examples related to atmospheric pressure, such as air resistance, buoyancy, and aerodynamic lift.
Part II: Character Animation
Squash & Stretch, Part 1 The challenge of animation is to create the illusion of reality and one of Walt Disney’s great discoveries was the use of “squash and stretch”, that is, exaggerating material properties to communicate hardness, elasticity, etc. This principle is related to momentum and impulse using the bouncing water balloon (a classic animation exercise) as an example.
Squash & Stretch, Part 2 Continued discussion of squash and stretch including bouncing, splashing, and shattering. The topic of twinning is discussed as it applies to effects and character animation.
Balance The basic principles of statics are discussed, specifically the analysis of balance in terms of center for gravity and base of support. These principles are applied to character animation and design (e.g., balance in character poses).
Weight Shift Advanced principles of statics are discussed, in particular how weight shift affects character poses. Other topics, including the role of balance in dynamic actions such as rising from a chair or running around a corner, are also presented.
Action / Reaction This class starts with Newton’s Third Law, which describes what occurs when two objects interact. Simple character animation sequences are analyzed in terms of the action-reaction. This analysis includes the various types of collisions (elastic, partially inelastic, fully inelastic) and the roles of momentum and impulse on the depiction of impact. Related animation concepts, such as anticipation, recoil, and settle, are also discussed.
Jumps, Part 1 The biomechanics of a human jump is described and the elements of a jump (squat, rise, flight, and landing) are analyzed in terms of the physical principles developed in the earlier lectures.
Jumps, Part 2 More elements of jumps, including overlapping action such as swinging the arms, somersaults, twists, and other acrobatics.
Walks, Part 1 Basic biomechanics of walking, starting from basic terminology and finishing with a detailed study of weight shift during a walk cycle.
Walks, Part 2 Analysis of walking from the perspective of energy, namely why the body moves as it does (e.g., pelvic rotation, knee flexion) to maximize the efficiency of walking.
Levers & Joints Rotational motion as it applies to moving limbs (arms, legs, etc.) is described; concepts introduced include rotational inertia, torques, mechanical levers. Related topics in computer animation, such as forward and inverse kinetics, are also presented.
Creating Scale What makes scale models in films look real or fake? How can you make your animated character appear to be a 50 foot robot instead of a 5 foot robot? In this lecture we consider how physical principles establish scale and size, including both visual and non-visual cues.
Part III: Effects and Character FX Animation
Waves, Part 1 We consider various types of wave motion, especially those relevant to effects animation (moving cloth, ripples of water, etc.). The concepts of wave speed, frequency, and wavelength (and their interrelationships) are presented in a variety of examples, including some from acoustics (e.g., Doppler effect with a siren). Special types of waves (sonic booms, blast waves from explosions) are also discussed.
Waves, Part 2 Advanced topics related to waves are presented, such as spectral decomposition and resonance, with an emphasis towards effects animation. Creation, transmission, and destruction of waves is described in various examples (musical instruments, breakers on a beach, etc.).
Hot & Cold This class introduces basic thermodynamics, including changes of phase (melting and boiling), and heat transfer, with an emphasis towards effects animation. Various types of extreme conditions (e.g., liquid nitrogen, burning iron) are demonstrated.
Electricity and Magnetism Basic principles of electricity and magnetism are presented, with particular attention to elements of interest in special effects (lightning, electrocution, EM pulse, etc.).
Part IV: Lighting and Visual Effects
Light and Shadow Discussion of basic lighting and shadows using simple ray-tracing. Topics include cast and form shadows, umbra and penumbra, fill light, rim light, three-point lighting, etc.
Shading and Reflection The reflection of light by a various types of surfaces is described and analyzed in terms of ray tracing (e.g., how a mirror forms an image, Fresnel effect). Related topics in computer graphics, such as shaders, are also covered.
Refraction Discussion of light bending as it passes through materials. Topics include optical density, invisibility, total internal reflection, lenses, bokeh effect, visual acuity, and mirages.
Scattering Discussion of light scattering as it passes through materials. Topics include atmospheric perspective, Mie and Rayleigh scattering, and optical properties of the sky.
Seeing Color The physics of color, including color systems, human vision and color perception, is described.
Making Color Color is created by a variety of physical processes, such as absorption, refraction, interference, etc., and these processes are described in this lecture.
Steroscopic 3D The physics of creating and viewing stereoscopic 3D images, both by passive (anaglyph, polarized, etc.) and active (shutter glasses) systems, will be described. Other visual cues for depth perception are also discussed as well as methods for creation of 3D images.